To aid new chemical engineering students...


Wednesday, 20 January 2016

Corrosion Engineering by Mars G Fontana pdf

Corrosion Engineering by Mars G Fontana

Tuesday, 19 January 2016

Process Systems Analysis And Control by Donald R Coughanowr pdf

Process Systems Analysis And Control by Donald R Coughanowr

Tuesday, 24 November 2015

How are polymers classified on the basis of their structure?

Classification Based on Structure of Polymers:

  • Linear Polymers 
  • Branched Polymers 
  • Cross-linked Polymers


Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or fluidity of a material. The dominant applications are for plastics, especially polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The properties of other materials are also improved when blended with plasticizers including concrete, clays, and related products.

An example of the most common, general purpose plasticizer is DOP, dioctyl phthalate, also known as DEHP, or diethylhexyl phthalate. This plasticizer is most commonly seen in PVC, but can be found in other polymer systems as well.



Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials via the addition of sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators. These additives modify the polymer by forming cross-links (bridges) between individual polymer chains.

What is Thermosetting and Thermoplastic?


A thermosetting polymer (or plastic), also known as a thermoset, is a prepolymer material that cures irreversibly. The cure may be induced by heat, generally above 200 °C (392 °F), through a chemical reaction, or suitable irradiation.


  • Epoxy Resin
  • Melamine Forlamdehyde
  • Polyester Resin
  • Urea Forlamdehyde


A Fisch, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.


  • ABS
  • Acrylic
  • Polyester
  • Polypropylene
  • Teflon
  • Nylon

Monday, 23 November 2015

What are LDPE and HDPE?


Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene.


High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.

Sunday, 22 November 2015

What are Copolymer and Homopolymer?

What are Copolymer and Homopolymer?


A homopolymer is the polymer which is made by linking only one type of small molecule, or monomer together.

Examples: Polyvinyl chloride


When two different types of monomers unite together to polymerize in the same polymer chain, that produces a copolymer.

Example: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Nitrile rubber

There are mainly four types of copolymers.

  • Alternating copolymer
  • Random copolymer
  • Block copolymer
  • Graft copolymer

To understand those, let A and B are two different monomer.

Alternating copolymer: When the two monomers are arranged in an alternating fashion, the polymer is called an alternating copolymer.

Alternating copolymer

Random copolymer: In a random copolymer, the two monomers may follow in any order:

Random copolymer

Block copolymer: In a block copolymer, all of one type of monomer are grouped together, and all of the other are grouped together. A block copolymer can be thought of as two homopolymers joined together.

Block copolymer

Graft copolymer: When chains of a polymer made of monomer B are grafted onto a polymer chain of monomer A we have a graft copolymer.

What is Polymerization?


In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process by which two or more molecules (monomer) combine by a chemical reaction to form larger molecules (polymer) that contain repeating structural units.

See Also: Types of Polymerization